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Denoising Variational Auto-Encoder in Torch

Based on the Torch implementation of a vanilla variational auto-encoder in a previous article, this article discusses an implementation of a denoising variational auto-encoder. While the theory of denoising variational auto-encoders is more involved, an implementation merely requires a suitable noise model.

This is the second practical article in a series on variational auto-encoders and their variants [][][][]. Previous articles include and introduction to the mathematics behind variational auto-encoders as well as their denoising and categorical variants. The last article, in contrast, discussed a simple Torch implementation of the vanilla variational auto-encoder. This implementation can easily be extended to train a denoising variational auto-encoder, as shown below.

Previous articles:

Prerequisites. This article requires basic understanding of LUA and Torch; the code is also based on this article and the underlying mathematics are detailed in this article.

The code is available on GitHub:

Torch Denoising Variational Auto-Encoder on GitHub

Overview

A variational auto-encoder is a continuous latent variable model intended to learn a latent space $\mathcal{Z} = \mathbb{R}^Q$ using a given set of samples $\{y_m\} \subseteq \mathcal{Y} = \mathbb{R}^R$ where $Q \ll R$ (i.e. a dimensionality reduction). The model consists of a decoder — the generative model $p(y | z)$ given a fixed prior $p(z)$ — and an encoder — the recognition model $q(z | y)$. For simplicity, the prior $p(z)$ is modeled as unit Gaussian,

$p(z) = \mathcal{N}(z; 0, I_Q)$,

such that the recognition model $q(z | y)$ is also modeled as Gaussian distribution. Specifically, the encoder predicts the mean and variance, $\mu(y), \sigma^2(z) \in \mathbb{R}^Q$, and the recognition model takes the form

$q(z|y) = \mathcal{N}(z; \mu(y), \text{diag}(\sigma^2(z)))$.

In our example, the training samples $y_m$ will be binary images such that the generative model can be written as follows:

$p(y|z) = \prod_i \text{Ber}(y_i ; \theta_i(z))$

where the probabilities $\theta_i(z)$ are predicted using the decoder. These probabilities can also be thresholded to obtain binary images during testing. The model is trained by maximizing a lower bound on the likelihood, or equivalently minimizing:

$\mathcal{L}_{\text{VAE}} (w) = \text{KL}(q(z|y_m) | p(z)) - \frac{1}{L}\sum_{l = 1}^L \ln p(y_m | z_{l,m})$

where $y_m$ is a training sample and $z_{l,m} = g(\epsilon_{l,m}, y)$ with $\epsilon_{l,m} \sim \mathcal{N}(\epsilon ; 0, I_Q)$. Here, $g$ represents the so-called reparamterization trick:

$z_i = g_i(y, \epsilon_i) = \mu_i(y) + \epsilon_i \sigma_i^2(y)$

which ensures the differentiability of the model with respect to its input. The Kullback-Leibler divergence $\text{KL}$ can be implemented analytically; the negative log-likelihood $-\ln p(y_m | z_{l,m})$ results in a binary cross entropy error as we model $p(y|z)$ as Bernoulli distribution.

A denoising variational auto-encoder introduces an additional corruption process

$p(y' | y)$

where $y'$ refers to a corrupted training sample. The recognition model from above is then replaced by

$\tilde{q}(z|y) = \int q(z|y') p(y'|y) dy'$

which is argued to be more expressive []. The model is trained by minimizing

$\mathcal{L}_{\text{DVAE}}(w) = \frac{1}{L} \sum_{l = 1}^L \left[\text{KL}(q(z|y'_{l,m})|p(z)) + \sum_{l' = 1}^{L'} \ln p(y_m|z_{l,l',m})\right]$

where $y'_{l,m} \sim q(y'|y_m)$ and $z_{l,l',m} = g(y'_{l,m}, \epsilon)$ with $\epsilon_{l,l',m} \sim \mathcal{N}(\epsilon;0,1)$. Again, $L = L' = 1$ is used in practice.

Implementation

The full Torch implementation is listed below:

-- Denoising variational auto-encoder.

require('math')
require('torch')
require('nn')
require('cunn')
require('optim')
require('image')

-- (1) The Kullback Leibler loss is defined as additional nn module, i.e. layer.
-- In the forward pass, the loss is computed, but the input is passed forward
-- without change.
-- On the backward pass, an additive loss corresponding to the
-- derivative of the Cullback Leibler loss is added to the gradients.
--- @class KullbackLeiblerDivergence
local KullbackLeiblerDivergence, KullbackLeiblerDivergenceParent = torch.class('nn.KullbackLeiblerDivergence', 'nn.Module')

--- Initialize.
-- @param lambda weight of loss
-- @param sizeAverage
function KullbackLeiblerDivergence:__init(lambda, sizeAverage)
  self.lambda = lambda or 1
  self.sizeAverage = sizeAverage or false
  self.loss = nil
end

--- Compute the Kullback-Leiber divergence; however, the input remains
-- unchanged - the divergence is saved in KullBackLeiblerDivergence.loss.
-- @param input table of two elements, mean and log variance
-- @param table of wo elements, mean and log variance
function KullbackLeiblerDivergence:updateOutput(input)
  assert(#input == 2)

  -- (1.1) In the forward pass, mean and log-variance are assumed to be passed as table.
  -- Then the loss is computed as outlined below.
  -- Optionally, the loss is averaged by size.
  local mean, logVar = table.unpack(input)
  self.loss = self.lambda * 0.5 * torch.sum(torch.pow(mean, 2) + torch.exp(logVar) - 1 - logVar)

  if self.sizeAverage then
    self.loss = self.loss/(input[1]:size(1)*input[1]:size(2))
  end

  self.output = input
  return self.output
end

--- Compute the backward pass of the Kullback-Leibler Divergence.
-- @param input original inpur as table of two elements, mean and log variance
-- @param gradOutput gradients from top layer, table of two elements, mean and log variance
-- @param gradients with respect to input, table of two elements
function KullbackLeiblerDivergence:updateGradInput(input, gradOutput)
  assert(#gradOutput == 2)

  -- (1.2) In the backward pass, gradients for mean and log-variance are
  -- computed separately.
  local mean, logVar = table.unpack(input)
  self.gradInput = {}
  self.gradInput[1] = self.lambda*mean
  self.gradInput[2] = self.lambda*0.5*(torch.exp(logVar) - 1)

  if self.sizeAverage then
    self.gradInput[1] = self.gradInput[1]/(input[1]:size(1)*input[1]:size(2))
    self.gradInput[2] = self.gradInput[2]/(input[2]:size(1)*input[2]:size(2))
  end

  self.gradInput[1] = self.gradInput[1] + gradOutput[1]
  self.gradInput[2] = self.gradInput[2] + gradOutput[2]

  return self.gradInput
end

-- (2) The sampler samples a random variable given the mean and standard deviation
-- vector; the samples value will be the input to the decoder.
-- For sampling the reparameterization trick is used which
-- also allows to implement the backward pass.
--- @class ReparameterizationSampler
local ReparameterizationSampler, ReparameterizationSamplerParent = torch.class('nn.ReparameterizationSampler', 'nn.Module')

function ReparameterizationSampler:__init()

end

--- Sample from the provided mean and variance using the reparameterization trick.
-- @param input table of two elements, mean and log variance
-- @return sample
function ReparameterizationSampler:updateOutput(input)
  assert(#input == 2)

  -- (2.1) Forward pass.
  -- Note that the samples assumes CUDA training;
  -- otherwise the lines below might need to be adapted.
  local mean, logVar = table.unpack(input)
  self.eps = torch.randn(input[1]:size()):cuda()
  self.output = torch.cmul(torch.exp(0.5*logVar), self.eps) + mean

  return self.output
end

--- Backward pass of the sampler.
-- @param input table of two elements, mean and log variance
-- @param gradOutput gradients of top layer
-- @return gradients with respect to input, table of two elements
function ReparameterizationSampler:updateGradInput(input, gradOutput)
  self.gradInput = {}

  -- (2.2) Backward pass.
  local _, logVar = table.unpack(input)
  self.gradInput[1] = gradOutput
  self.gradInput[2] = torch.cmul(torch.cmul(0.5*torch.exp(0.5*logVar), self.eps), gradOutput)

  return self.gradInput
end

-- Data parameters.
H = 24
W = 24
rH = 8
rW = 8
N = 50000

-- Fix random seed.
torch.manualSeed(1)

-- (3) The example data will be rectangles of random size which
-- are to be auto-encoded by the VAE.
-- Generate rectangle data.
inputs = torch.Tensor(N, 1, H, W):fill(0)
for i = 1, N do
  local h = torch.random(rH, rH)
  local w = torch.random(rW, rW)
  local aH = torch.random(1, H - h)
  local aW = torch.random(1, W - w)
  inputs[i][1]:sub(aH, aH + h, aW, aW + w):fill(1)
end

outputs = inputs:clone()
print('[Training] created training set')

-- (4) The encoder consists of several linear layers followed by
-- the Kullback Leibler loss, the samples and the docoder; the decoder
-- mirrors the encoder.
-- (4.1) The encoder:
hidden = math.floor(2*H*W)
encoder = nn.Sequential()
encoder:add(nn.View(1*H*W))
encoder:add(nn.Linear(1*H*W, hidden))
--encoder:add(nn.BatchNormalization(hidden))
encoder:add(nn.ReLU(true))
encoder:add(nn.Linear(hidden, hidden))
--encoder:add(nn.BatchNormalization(hidden))
encoder:add(nn.ReLU(true))

code = 2
encoder:add(nn.View(hidden))
meanLogVar = nn.ConcatTable()
meanLogVar:add(nn.Linear(hidden, code)) -- Mean of the hidden code.
meanLogVar:add(nn.Linear(hidden, code)) -- Variance of the hidden code (diagonal variance matrix).
encoder:add(meanLogVar)

-- (4.2) The decoder:
decoder = nn.Sequential()
decoder:add(nn.Linear(code, hidden))
--decoder:add(nn.BatchNormalization(hidden))
decoder:add(nn.ReLU(true))
decoder:add(nn.Linear(hidden, hidden))
--decoder:add(nn.BatchNormalization(hidden))
decoder:add(nn.ReLU(true))
decoder:add(nn.Linear(hidden, 1*H*W))
decoder:add(nn.View(1, H, W))
decoder:add(nn.Sigmoid(true))

-- (4.3) The full model, i.e encoder followed by the Kullback Leibler
-- divergence and the reparameterization trick sampler.
model = nn.Sequential()
model:add(encoder)
KLD = nn.KullbackLeiblerDivergence()
model:add(KLD)
model:add(nn.ReparameterizationSampler())
model:add(decoder)
model = model:cuda()
print(model)

-- (4.4) As criterion, a binary cross entropy criterion is used (as
-- for classification), note that this is also discussed in the paper.
-- Note that averaging is turned off in order to automatically weight
-- BCE loss and Kullback-Leibler divergence.
criterion = nn.BCECriterion()
criterion.sizeAverage = false
criterion = criterion:cuda()

parameters, gradParameters = model:getParameters()
parameters = parameters:cuda()
gradParameters = gradParameters:cuda()

-- (5) Training proceeds as for regular networks.
-- The BCE loss and the Kullback Leibler loss are monitored
-- separately.
batchSize = 16
learningRate = 0.001
epochs = 10
iterations = epochs*math.floor(N/batchSize)
lossIterations = 50 -- in which interval to report training

-- (5.1) We keep record of training statistics:
-- loss, KLD loss, mean, std and logvar
protocol = torch.Tensor(iterations, 5):fill(0)

for t = 1, iterations do

  -- Sample a random batch from the dataset.
  local shuffle = torch.randperm(N)
  shuffle = shuffle:narrow(1, 1, batchSize)
  shuffle = shuffle:long()

  local input = inputs:index(1, shuffle)
  local output = outputs:index(1, shuffle)

  input = input:cuda()
  output = output:cuda()

  -- (5.2) One training step, consisting of forward pass
  -- and criterion evaluation and backward pass.
  -- Optimization is then performed by ADAM.
  --- Definition of the objective on the current mini-batch.
  -- This will be the objective fed to the optimization algorithm.
  -- @param x input parameters
  -- @return object value, gradients
  local feval = function(x)

    -- Get new parameters.
    if x ~= parameters then
      parameters:copy(x)
    end

    -- Reset gradients.
    gradParameters:zero()

    -- Evaluate function on mini-batch.
    local pred = model:forward(input)
    local f = criterion:forward(pred, output)

    protocol[t][1] = f
    protocol[t][2] = KLD.loss
    protocol[t][3] = torch.mean(meanLogVar.output[1])
    protocol[t][4] = torch.std(meanLogVar.output[2])
    protocol[t][5] = torch.mean(meanLogVar.output[2])

    -- Estimate df/dW.
    local df_do = criterion:backward(pred, output)
    model:backward(input, df_do)

    -- return f and df/dX
    return f, gradParameters
  end

  -- Check https://github.com/torch/optim/blob/master/adam.lua
  -- for details on learning rate decay.
  adamState = adamState or {
      learningRate = learningRate,
      momentum = 0,
      learningRateDecay = 0.0001
  }

  -- Returns the new parameters and the objective evaluated
  -- before the update.
  p, f = optim.adam(feval, parameters, adamState)

  -- (5.3) Occasionally, we print the most relevant information
  -- including loss and KLD loss as well as latent code statistics.
  if t%lossIterations == 0 then
    local loss = torch.mean(protocol:narrow(2, 1, 1):narrow(1, t - lossIterations + 1, lossIterations))
    local KLDLoss = torch.mean(protocol:narrow(2, 2, 1):narrow(1, t - lossIterations + 1, lossIterations))
    local mean = torch.mean(protocol:narrow(2, 3, 1):narrow(1, t - lossIterations + 1, lossIterations))
    local std = torch.mean(protocol:narrow(2, 4, 1):narrow(1, t - lossIterations + 1, lossIterations))
    local logvar = torch.mean(protocol:narrow(2, 5, 1):narrow(1, t - lossIterations + 1, lossIterations))
    print('[Training] ' .. t .. '/' .. iterations .. ': ' .. loss .. ' | ' .. KLDLoss .. ' | ' .. mean .. ' | ' .. std .. ' | ' .. logvar)
  end
end

-- (6) For visualization, interpolations are generated;
-- in this case this is easy as the code is two-dimensional.
interpolations = torch.Tensor(20 * H, 20 * W)
step = 0.05

-- Sample 20 x 20 points
for i = 1, 20  do
  for j = 1, 20 do
    local sample = torch.Tensor({2 * i * step - 21 * step, 2 * j * step - 21 * step}):view(1, code)
    sample = sample:cuda()
    local interpolation = decoder:forward(sample)
    interpolation = interpolation:float()
    interpolations[{{(i - 1) * H + 1, i * H}, {(j - 1) * W + 1, j * W}}] = interpolation
  end
end

image.save('interpolations.png', interpolations)

The main differences to our variational auto-encoder implementation are the following:

  1. The Bernoulli noise layer, which implements the corruption process $p(y'|y)$ as nn module. Specifically, the module distinguishes between training and testing mode. During training, the binary input variables are flipped with a determined probability self.p.
  2. While the training procedure remains unchanged, the model (specifically, the encoder) includes the newly created nn.BernoulliNoise module as very first layer.

These are the only differences to the standard variational auto-encoder that are requires. It also illustrates the simplicity of implementing denoising variational auto-encoders.

Interpolations are shown in Figure 1, in comparison to a standard variational auto-encoder. In practice, the denoising criterion often helps in shaping the latent space and, thus, also improves the generative model. This can also be seen in Figure 1, where "bad" reconstructions are less likely compared to the standard model.

Figure 1 (click to enlarge): Samples from the learned generative model for latent codes in $[0,1]^2$ with step size $0.05$ on both aces. On the left, a standard variational auto-encoder is shown; on the right, its denoising counterpart.

Outlook

The next, and final, article of this series will present a Torch implementation of categorical variational auto-encoders [][]. Specifically, we will assume Bernoulli latent variables.

  • [] D. P. Kingma and M. Welling. Auto-encoding variational bayes. CoRR, abs/1312.6114, 2013.
  • [] D. J. Im, S. Ahn, R. Memisevic, and Y. Bengio. Denoising criterion for variational auto-encoding framework. In AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pages 2059-2065, 2017.
  • [] E. Jang, S. Gu, and B. Poole. Categorical reparameterization with gumbel-softmax. CoRR, abs/1611.01144, 2016.
  • [] C. J. Maddison, A. Mnih, and Y. W. Teh. The concrete distribution: A continuous relaxation of discrete random variables. CoRR, abs/1611.00712, 2016.

What is your opinion on this article? Did you find it interesting or useful? Let me know your thoughts in the comments below or get in touch with me:

@david_stutz