Lee et al. propose a variant of adversarial training where a generator is trained simultaneously to generated adversarial perturbations. This approach follows the idea that it is possible to “learn” how to generate adversarial perturbations (as in ). In this case, the authors use the gradient of the classifier with respect to the input as hint for the generator. Both generator and classifier are then trained in an adversarial setting (analogously to generative adversarial networks), see the paper for details.