Alberto Marchisio, Giorgio Nanfa, Faiq Khalid, Muhammad Abdullah Hanif, Maurizio Martina, Muhammad Shafique. CapsAttacks: Robust and Imperceptible Adversarial Attacks on Capsule Networks. CoRR abs/1901.09878 (2019).

Marchisio et al. propose a black-box adversarial attack on Capsule Networks. The main idea of the attack is to select pixels based on their local standard deviation. Given a window of allowed pixels to be manipulated, these are sorted based on standard deviation and possible impact on the predicted probability (i.e., gap between target class probability and maximum other class probability). A subset of these pixels is then manipulated by a fixed noise value $\delta$. In experiments, the attack is shown to be effective for CapsuleNetworks and other networks.

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